There are way more manuscripts than opportunities for respected peer-reviewed publications (Sinhababu 2016). So many good manuscripts might never be properly reviewed (or published). This would be bad. In this post, I’ll mention a few potential solutions. Then I’ll briefly evaluate one: eliminating compulsory peer-review altogether.
1. Peer Review Is New
I learned from Kate Norlock that peer-review is a relatively recent thing.†
… the surprisingly short history of what we now think of as peer-review [Times Higher Ed.] … the Google ngram on peer-review: [Google ngram article] …. suggests that academics have only been so fixated on it as the measure of our worth since the 1970s.
2. The Current Form of Peer Review Isn’t Obviously Optimal
One reason for peer-review might be that it inhibits bias. And there is some evidence that anonymous peer-review reduces bias (Budden et al 2008). However, a review of 17 studies challenges this finding (Bastian 2015; for more discussion see a post by Norlock).††
Perhaps further reviews of the evidence would undermine our other reasons for existing peer-review practices — feel free to point me to such reviews in the comments. Whatever the evidence is, if it does not obviously favor the status quo, then we should investigate our alternatives.
3. Alternatives To The Current Peer Review
As Kate Norlock (and Aileen Fyfe) mentioned, the current norms of peer-review are relatively new. And as Hilda Bastian explains, the apparent reasons for current peer-review practices are not well supported by evidence. So let’s consider some alternatives to current peer-reviewed publication practices. Starting with the most drastic…
- No more journals, publishers, or top-down quality control, ever. That is, we publish stuff whenever we want, wherever we want, however we want (repositories, personal websites, etc.).
- Keep journals and other publication schemes, but no more top-down quality control. Journals, publishers, etc. would be for organizational purposes only — e.g., Ethics continues to publish stuff about ethics.
- Keep journals and other publication schemes, and keep editors, but no more referees. Journals, publishers, etc. would serve organizational and minimal quality control functions — e.g., editors could still desk reject papers that do not meet basic academic standards, but they would publish everything else.
- Keep journals and other publication schemes, keep editors, and keep referees, but don’t base publication decisions on referee reports. Referees still complete reports, but editors do not have access to them until after a decision has been made. Maybe editors could append (signed?) reviewer comments (ratings?) to every published paper (van Rooyen, Delamothe, and Evans 2010).
- Open peer review. Keep journals and other publication schemes, keep editors, and keep referees, but make reviewers sign their referee reports (van Rooyen 1999, Walsh et al 2000).
- Whatever we do, make publication less of a priority. For instance, we could assign less weight to publications in decisions to hire, promote, fund, invite to [whatever], etc.
- Whatever we do, stop attributing prestige to certain journals and publishers. Maybe just stop ranking journals altogether …or at least stop ranking them badly (see “Academic Tech: Custom Reporting & Ranking“)
(There are other possibilities that I have ignored; feel free to add to this list in the comments. )
4. Should We Eliminate Peer Review?
Our first possibility is tantamount to eliminating compulsory peer-review altogether. We can easily imagine potential pros and cons of this proposal.
- The opportunity to prioritize other stuff. Imagine how much time and energy would be freed up by eliminating compulsory review! Academics would not be bogged down by manuscript reviews, editors would not be bogged down by the search for reviewers, etc. Who knows, maybe this time could be better spent on something else.
- Faster publication cycle. One of the primary reasons for delayed publication is peer-review. It takes time to find reviewers, wait for their reports, and make a decisions based on reviewers’ reports. Without a compulsory review process, this delay is eliminated. Research could be available much faster. This would have benefits for both academics and whoever consumes academic research.
Regarding the first point, it’s not entirely clear whether the value of other stuff is higher than the value of compulsory peer-review. What we need are credible analyses of the costs and benefits of each.
Something similar can be said about the second point: We need to know more about the costs and benefits of both a faster publication cycle and compulsory peer-review. Until we know more, it’s not clear whether the benefit(s) of faster publication would be a net benefit.
- Less dialogue. If we eliminate compulsory peer-review, then there will be less dialogue between academics. This might result in — among other things — academics work being less inclusive, interdisciplinary, rigorous, etc.
- Fewer indicators of quality. Without the stamp of approval from prestigious peer-reviewed journals, book publishers, conferences, etc., it will be harder to separate the seemingly good stuff from the seemingly not so good stuff.†††
- More errors. With fewer people checking our work, there might be more errors in publications.
The concern about dialogue might not be warranted. There are other mechanisms for dialogue besides peer-review. Indeed, academics engage in other forms of dialogue without being compelled to do so. For example, academics are often invited (not on the basis of peer-review) to present and answer questions about their research. So there would still be opportunities for dialogue without compulsory peer-review. The question is whether the value of compulsory peer-review can be provided by these other forms of dialogue. Further, the claim that this would cause less dialogue is a testable hypothesis. I do not know of good evidence that supports the hypothesis.
The concern about indicators of quality is probably unwarranted. After all, academics can determine quality without compulsory peer-review. For instance, academics can (and do) look to the wisdom of the crowd (of readers). And they can (and do) rely on their own judgments. So it is not clear what academics would lose in the way of quality indicators if compulsory peer-review were eliminated.
I am not sure what to make of the concern about errors. After all, additional people working on a manuscript can easily result in more errors, not less. What do the data say about the average quantity (and severity) of errors that are prevented by compulsory peer-review?
The publication of good research is delayed and even prevented by the resource-intensive demands of compulsory peer-review. One potential fix is the elimination of compulsory peer-review. In order to evaluate this proposal, we would need to determine the costs and benefits of compulsory peer-review. We’d also need to determine the costs and benefits of the alternatives.
† Kate Norlock’s original comment is here.
†† Thanks to Kate Norlock for pointing me to this review.
††† For more on prestige in academia, see this wonderful presentation: “Prestige: The first and final hurdle…“
One thought on “Peer-review: should we get rid of it?”
Thanks to people on Reddit for helping me to look further into the literature [Reddit comments]. Here’s a preliminary list of things to check out:
Bornmann, L., & Mungra, P. (2011). Improving peer review in scholarly journals. European Science Editing, 37(2), 41–43. (http://www.lutz-bornmann.de/icons/bornmannEssay41-43.pdf)
Walker, R., & Rocha da Silva, P. (2015). Emerging trends in peer review: a survey. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9. http://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2015.00169
Bastian, H. (2014). A Stronger Post-Publication Culture Is Needed for Better Science. PLOS Med, 11(12), e1001772. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001772
Foley, J. A. (2013). Peer Review, Citation Ratings and Other Fetishes. Springer Science Reviews, 1(1-2), 5–7. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40362-013-0003-x
Resnik, D. B., & Elmore, S. A. (2015). Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors. Science and Engineering Ethics, 22(1), 169–188. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-015-9625-5
Lortie, C. J., Allesina, S., Aarssen, L., Grod, O., & Budden, A. E. (2013). With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility: the Importance of Rejection, Power, and Editors in the Practice of Scientific Publishing. PLOS ONE, 8(12), e85382. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085382
Robertson, C. T., & Kesselheim, A. S. (2016). Blinding as a Solution to Bias: Strengthening Biomedical Science, Forensic Science, and Law. Academic Press.
Samir Hachani. (2015). Open Peer Review: Fast Forward for a New Science. In Current Issues in Libraries, Information Science and Related Fields (Vol. 39, pp. 115–141). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/S0065-283020150000039012
Hanel, P. H. P. (2015). Why scientific publications should be anonymous. arXiv:1512.05382 [cs]. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.05382
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