A preview of an infographic that outlines the research on and differences between addiction and habit. CC BY 3.0

Addiction Vs. Habit: An Infographic

September was National Recovery Month. And in September, science writer Megan Ray Nichols reached out. Megan made an infographic about the research on and differences between addiction and habit. It’s really interesting and well-designed! Check out the infographic and the sources below. 


An infographic outlining the research on and the differences between addiction and habit. CC BY 3.0

Infographic credit: “Addiction vs Habit: Recognizing the Dangers” via Megan Ray Nichols, CC BY 3.0, no changes. 


Bonita, J. S., Mandarano, M., Shuta, D., & Vinson, J. (2007). Coffee and cardiovascular disease: In vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies. Pharmacological Research, 55(3), 187–198.

Budney, A. J., Roffman, R., Stephens, R. S., & Walker, D. (2007). Marijuana dependence and its treatment. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 4(1), 4. [PDF]

Canadian Center on Substance Abuse; National Eating Disorder Information Centre. (2013). When Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse Problems Collide. [PDF]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US), & Office on Smoking and Health (US). (2010). How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US). [PDF]

Debono, M., Ghobadi, C., Rostami-Hodjegan, A., Huatan, H., Campbell, M. J., Newell-Price, J., … Ross, R. J. (2009). Modified-release hydrocortisone to provide circadian cortisol profiles. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(5), 1548–1554. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-2380 [PDF]

Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) 2003 – 2013: National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services. [PDF]

Duhigg, C. (2014). The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. (Free, enlightening excerpt from the appendix here).

Freedman, N. D., Park, Y., Abnet, C. C., Hollenbeck, A. R., & Sinha, R. (2012). Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(20), 1891–1904. [PDF]

Hedden, S. L., Kennett, J., Lipari, R., Medley, G., Tice, P., Copello, E. A. P., & Kroutil, L. A. (2015). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (pp. 1–37). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). [PDF]

Hernán, M. A., Takkouche, B., Caamaño-Isorna, F., & Gestal-Otero, J. J. (2002). A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson’s disease. Annals of Neurology, 52(3), 276–284. [PDF]

How Addiction Happens: It’s Not Just Poor Life Decisions. (2012, May 4). Retrieved from http://www.nextavenue.org/how-addiction-happens-its-not-just-poor-life-decisions/

Huxley, R. (2009). Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee, and Tea Consumption in Relation to Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(22), 2053. [PDF]

Inouye, S. T., & Kawamura, H. (1979). Persistence of circadian rhythmicity in a mammalian hypothalamic “island” containing the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 76(11), 5962–5966. [PDF]

Kawachi, I. (1996). A Prospective Study of Coffee Drinking and Suicide in Women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 156(5), 521.

Klatsky, A. L., Morton, C., Udaltsova, N., & Friedman, G. D. (2006). Coffee, cirrhosis, and transaminase enzymes. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(11), 1190–1195. [PDF]

Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Potts, H. W. W., & Wardle, J. (2010). How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), 998–1009. [PDF]

Lopez-Garcia, E. (2008). The Relationship of Coffee Consumption with Mortality. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(12), 904. [PDF]

Lopez-Quintero, C., Cobos, J. P. de los, Hasin, D. S., Okuda, M., Wang, S., Grant, B. F., & Blanco, C. (2011). Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: Results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115(1–2), 120–130. [PDF]

Lucas, M. (2011). Coffee, Caffeine, and Risk of Depression Among Women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(17), 1571. [PDF]

Maia, L., & De Mendonça, A. (2002). Does caffeine intake protect from Alzheimer’s disease? European Journal of Neurology, 9(4), 377–382.

Nutt, D. J., King, L. A., & Phillips, L. D. (2010). Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis. The Lancet, 376(9752), 1558–1565. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6

Nutt, D., King, L. A., Saulsbury, W., & Blakemore, C. (2007). Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse. Lancet (London, England), 369(9566), 1047–1053. [PDF]

Parkar, S. R., Ramanathan, S., Nair, N., Batra, S. A., Adarkar, S. A., Pandit, A. G., … Baghel, N. S. (2010). Cannabis dependence: Effects of cannabis consumption on inter-regional cerebral metabolic relationships in an Indian population. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(3), 236–242. [Free version]

Parrott, A. C. (2013). Human psychobiology of MDMA or “Ecstasy”: an overview of 25 years of empirical research. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 28(4), 289–307. [PDF]

Pulido, R., Hernández-García, M., & Saura-Calixto, F. (2003). Contribution of beverages to the intake of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the Spanish diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(10), 1275–1282.

Svilaas, A., Sakhi, A. K., Andersen, L. F., Svilaas, T., Ström, E. C., Jacobs, D. R., … Blomhoff, R. (2004). Intakes of Antioxidants in Coffee, Wine, and Vegetables Are Correlated with Plasma Carotenoids in Humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(3), 562–567. [PDF]

Tamakoshi, A., Lin, Y., Kawado, M., Yagyu, K., Kikuchi, S., Iso, H., & JACC Study Group. (2011). Effect of coffee consumption on all-cause and total cancer mortality: findings from the JACC study. European Journal of Epidemiology, 26(4), 285–293.

Understanding Addiction: How Addiction Hijacks the Brain. Via HelpGuide.org

Wright, G. A., Baker, D. D., Palmer, M. J., Stabler, D., Mustard, J. A., Power, E. F., … Stevenson, P. C. (2013). Caffeine in Floral Nectar Enhances a Pollinator’s Memory of Reward. Science, 339(6124), 1202–1204. [PDF]

Published by

Nick Byrd

Nick is a cognitive scientist at Florida State University studying reasoning, wellbeing, and willpower. Check out his blog at byrdnick.com/blog